For a brief description of the available databases, please switch to the German version of this webpage. For a full description (in English) of the content of a database and how to access it, please click on the respective link on the left.

A number of legal aspects must be considered for the use of the databases (these rules can vary according to the supplier).

Issues to be followed:

  • Data which is used within a piece of work must contain the name of the respective Database. When using Wharton Interface, also “Department of Banking and Finance” is to be cited. 
  • An example for Optionmetrics: "the Authors acknowledge the data from Optionmetrics which were obtained through Wharton Research Data Services (WRDS) and sponsored by the Department of Banking and Finance of the University of Zurich."
  • All Databases may be used by entitled users only. The various suppliers apply different rules.
  • Raw data material from the databases may only be published after permission by the supplier.
  • No data may be passed on to third parties.
  • Account details (login and password) not be passed on to any third party which also applies to co-authors!
  • Any commercial use of data is strictly prohibited (including private trading). Only academic use of the data is allowed.
  • The suppliers are not liable for the accuracy of their data.
  • For CRSO data furthermore applies:
  • Any approved publication or dissemination (including by electronic means or in any other form) by Subscriber or its employees or consultants of the data contained within or information derived from the Data Files shall contain attribution to CRSP® and shall bear the words "Source: CRSP®, Center for Research in Security Prices. Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago. Used with permission. All rights reserved."
  • This being the case, if you are going to use raw data in your paper you would need to submit this to CRSP first and obtain their approval. If you are just summarizing results from your research using the CRSP database, you can use the wording listed above. Once this is published you can send a copy to Matthew Frego ( and we will keep this in our files.